張書旂 Zhang Shuqi
張書旂 (1900-1957)，原名世忠，字書旂，號七盧居士，1900年生於浙江浦江。張氏出生於書香世家，自幼愛好繪畫，後來赴上海學畫。他最初研習油畫，後來轉攻花鳥。他的花鳥畫既師法宋人趙昌 (11世紀)、易元吉 (11世紀)，又取法近人任伯年 (1840-1896)、潘椒石 (活躍於19世紀晚期) 等。張氏曾獲嶺南畫派高劍父 (1879-1951) 、呂鳳子 (1886-1959) 親自傳授繪畫技法，形成了色、粉、筆墨兼施的畫風。此外，他開創了用粉設色的新技法，於染色宣紙上用白粉蘸色點染，別具一格。
1922年張氏畢業於上海美術專科學校，曾先後任教於廈門大學及南京中央大學美術系科，從事教育工作十多年。1932年他與上海文化藝術界諸聞韻 (1895-1939)、潘天壽 (1897-1971)、吳弗之 (1900-1977) 等人組織「白社」畫會，致力於詩、書、畫的研究。1935年張氏在南京舉辦首次個人畫展。1941年他為了宣揚中國文化藝術，應邀赴美講學。留美期間他在當地博物館舉辦畫展，更當眾示範作畫，吸引了大眾和藝術界的關注。他的作品《百鴿圖》被中國政府作為禮物贈送給當時美國總統富蘭克林．羅斯福 (Franklin D. Roosevelt) (1882-1945)，後來被懸掛白宮，成為了第一幅進駐白宮的中國畫。他的另一幅作品《雄鷹》亦在1956年美國舉辦的國際畫家名作展覽中獲得「水彩首獎」。
Zhang Shuqi (1900-1957), originally named Shizhong, sobriquet Qilu jushi, was born in 1900. He was a native of Pujiang, Zhejiang province. Zhang was born into a literary family. He liked painting at a young age and later studied painting in Shanghai. At first he studied oil painting, but then he turned his attention to Chinese flower-and-bird painting. His paintings on the subject make reference to the brushwork of past masters, such as Zhao Chang (11th century) and Yi Yuanji (11th century) as well as recent painters, such as Ren Bonian (1840-1896) and Pan Jiaoshi (active in late 19th century). Zhang also studied painting under Gao Jianfu (1879-1951) and Lü Fengzi (1886-1959) who were masters of the Lingnan School of painting, from which he established a painting style that combined color, powder, brush and ink. In addition, he initiated a new coloring technique that used white powder with color on dyed xuan paper.
Zhang graduated from the Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts in 1922. He subsequently taught at the Fine Arts Departments of Xiamen University and Nanjing Central University, working in the education field for over ten years. In 1932, he established Baishe painting research society with others from the Shanghai cultural and art scene, such as Zhu Wenyun (1895-1939), Pan Tianshou (1897-1971) and Wu Fuzhi (1900-1977), which engaged in the study of poetry, calligraphy and painting. Zhang held his first solo painting exhibition in Nanjing in 1935. In order to promote Chinese art and culture, he accepted an invitation to visit the United States in 1941. While in the United States, he held several painting exhibitions at local museums, and gave demonstrations on painting, which attracted the attention of the public and art circle. Zhang’s work Hundred Pigeons (Baige tu) was presented to their president of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) as a gift from the Chinese government. It was displayed at the White House, the first Chinese painting to have this honor. Another work by Zhang, The Eagle (Xiongying) was awarded “First Prize for Watercolor” at an international painting exhibition held in the United States in 1956.
Chen Chuanxi, “Ping xiandai mingjia yu dajia. Xu – Zhang Shuqi” (Assessment of Modern Masters. Continued – Zhang Shuqi), Guohua jia (Traditional Chinese Painter), no. 3 (2008): 6-7.
Li Baoguang, Mudan renwu zhi (Record of Peony Figures) (Jinan: Shandong wenhua yinxiang chubanshe, 2000), 435-436.
Tang Yongyan, “Zhang Shuqi huihua yishu kaolüe” (Investigation on Zhang Shuqi’s Art of Painting), Yishu baijia (Hundred School in Arts), no. 8 (2010): 228-231.
Zhang Shaoshu and Ding Ning, “Jinru Meiguo de Zhongguo hua: Zhang Shuqi ji qi yishu waijiao” (The Chinese Painting Entering the United State: Zhang Shuqi and His Art Diplomacy), Zhongguo meishu guan (National Art Museum of China Journal), no. 2 (2010): 116-120.
Zhang Shuqi, Zhang Shuqi huaji (Painting Collection of Zhang Shuqi) (Taipei: Zhongguo wenhua daxue chubanbu, 1986), 1-2.